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Published on:23rd Nov, 2012
Pharmacognosy Journal, 2012; 4(32):01-10
Research Article | doi:10.5530/pj.2012.32.1

Botanical pharmacognosy of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Wall. Ex. Nees

Authors and affiliation (s):

Sudhakaran MV

Department of Drug Standardisation, Government Ayurveda College, Thiruvananthapuram-695 001, Kerala, India


Introduction: Andrographis paniculata Nees is an important medicinal plant belongs to the family Acanthaceae. It is being used in traditional medicine, as a remedy for the cold, fever and detoxification of the body since time immemorial. Kalmegh has successfully halted the spread of 1919 Indian Flue (Influenza) pandemic. Drug has immense therapeutic potentials such as immunomodulatory, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory, laxative, depurative, prophylactic, hepatoprotective and cardiovascular effects. Most of the biological actions of Andrographis paniculata have been ascribed to its principal chemical constituent, Andrographolide. Objectives: The present work has been designed to delineate the Pharmacognostic profile of the leaves, stem, and root of Andrographis paniculata Nees. Materials and Methods: Macroscopic, microscopic evaluation, powder analysis, fluorescence standards of the drug and quantitative microscopy were carried out using the stem, root and leaves of Andrographis paniculata Nees Results: The presence of eucamptodromous pinnate venation with small, polygonal shaped areoles, upper epidermis lacking stomata, abaxial diacytic stomata, small palisade ratio, small stomatal index and fairly large Cystoliths in both upper and lower epidermis were features characteristics of the species. Quadrangular stem with dense collenchyma strands at the angles, uniseriate medullary rays with greater quantities of lignified fibers in the wood, abundant deposition of calcium oxalate in characteristic sites of the epidermal tissues of the lamina, ground tissues of petiole, stem, secondary xylem vessels of the root are also diagnostic characters of the taxon. Conclusion: The present study on botanical pharmacognosy of stem, root and leaves of Andrographis paniculata Nees thus provides useful information for quality control parameters for the crude drugs. Macro, microscopic, powder, quantitative and fluorescence standards discussed here can be considered as identifying parameters to substantiate and authenticate the drug. It could also fill the lacuna of our understanding about botanical pharmacognosy of Andrographis paniculata Nees.

Keywords: Andrographis paniculata Nees, palisade ratio, vein-islets, calcium oxalate, powder microscopy, fluorescent property


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