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Published on:7, 2011
Pharmacognosy Journal, 2011; 3(23):28-40
Original Article | doi:10.5530/pj.2011.23.5

Preliminary Phytochemical and Pharmacognostical Screening of the Ayurvedic Drug Hygrophila auriculata (K. Schum) Heine

Authors and affiliation (s):

Mohammed Sarfaraj Hussain*1, Sheeba Fareed1, Mohammed Ali2

1Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Lucknow. 226026. India.

2Department of Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062. India.


The plant Hygrophila auriculata (K.Schum) Heine, (Acanthaceae), has been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation, pain, urinary infection, edema, gout and as a diuretic. It is described in ayurvedic literature as Ikshura, Ikshugandha, and Kokilasha having eyes like the Kokila or Indian Cuckoo. The plant is widely distributed throughout India, Sri Lanka, Burma, Malaysia and Nepal. Following various folk claims for cure numerous diseases, efforts have been made by researcher to verify the efficacy of the plant through scientific biological screenings. The plant contains saponins, alkaloids, steroids, tannins, flavonoids and triterpenoids are the main phytoconstituents. A scrutiny of literature revealed some notable pharmacological activities like anti-nociceptive, anti-tumor, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, haematinic, diuretics, free radical scavenging, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anabolic and androgenic activities. This study deals with the preliminary phytochemical screening and detailed pharmacognostical study of leaf, stem and root of Hygrophila auriculata (K.Schum) Heine which includes macro and microscopic studies, determination of physico-chemical parameters of the extract using TLC and HPTLC fingerprinting. The aqueous, alcoholic, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions separated from the alcoholic extract of Hygrophila auriculata were prepared and the total phenolic content was estimated. Physico-chemical studies revealed alcohol soluble extractive (5.12%w/w), water soluble extractive (24.96 ), total ash (9.90), acid insoluble ash (1.48), water soluble ash (8.35% w/w), loss on drying (6.30% w/w), swelling index (2.0% w/w), foreign matter (1.10% w/w). Flourescence analysis exhibited considerable variation and preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, tannins and saponins. HPTLC profile of n- butanol fraction represent presence the various types of triterpenoids. These studies will provide referential information for the correct identification of the crude drugs.

Key words: Hygrophila auriculata (K. Schum) Heine; Preliminary phytochemical screening; pharmacognostical evaluation; HPTLC.


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